All Saints Brockhampton.
The Architect’s Error
As it says for all to see in the church porch, architect W.R. Lethaby’s error at All Saints’, Brockhampton, was that “The experimental nature of the building led to some disasters – part of the west wall collapsed.” As a result, Lethaby never built again.
In a letter to his sister, the architect confessed that “The responsibility of building always withers me up, and now that the cost has mounted up terribly in a scheme of my own to build without contractor, it is quite terrible to wake up to a doubt of the foundations.” After the failure at Brockhampton, Lethaby limited himself to teaching and writing.
Nave of All Saints Brockhampton, Herefordshire.
Lethaby’s error at All Saints’ Church was in trying to build in accordance with William Morris’ “never-never-land of pseudo-medieval guild socialism” . Despite preparing over two hundred drawings for the project, and living on-site so that he could work closely with the trades and allied crafts workers involved in the construction process, Lethaby could not narrow the gap between ‘design’ and ‘doing’, and mistakes were made. According to the online history of the church , as the project “neared completion a structural crack appeared in the east wall of the south transept due to an inadequate foundation.”
Although Lethaby paid for his error – in many ways, including literally by paying for the necessary remedial work out of his own pocket – some 80 years later, Viscount Esher, then Rector of the Royal College of Art, described Lethaby as “the heaven-sent antidote to [William] Morris.” For Esher, Lethaby was “able to speak of a new architecture more attractively, and more in the language of a later generation, than any other Englishman…”
Windows and Light Fittings, South Side, All Saints Brockhampton.
One of Two Tapestries designed by Edward Burne-Jones and made in The Morris Workshops.
While working on his church at Brockhampton, Lethaby gave a famous lecture at the Birmingham Municipal School of Art on William Morris’ understanding of Art as being “the spirit of man put into the body of his labour; the intrinsically right principle in the making of things – Work religion.” In this, Lethaby was clearly restating the Arts & Crafts definition of the word ‘Art’ as meaning “the elements of good quality, reasoned fitness, and pleasantness in all work done by hand for necessary service.”
Lethaby subsequently rephrased this in summary terms as “art may be thought of as THE WELL-DOING OF WHAT NEEDS DOING”, and this slogan both informed and guided Raymond Unwin’s highly influential ‘Town Planning in Practice’ of 1909. As Unwin commented, “We have in a certain niggardly way done what needed doing, but much that we have done has lacked the insight of imagination and the generosity of treatment which would have constituted the work well done; and it is from this well-doing that beauty springs.”
By 1940, aspiring places like Coventry were designing the modern city under the same slogan: ‘THE WELL MAKING OF THAT WHICH NEEDS MAKING’.
Decorative and Functional Details from All Saints Brockhampton.
In old age, Lethaby declared  that “We have to refound art on community service as the well-doing of what needs doing”, and his own life became very much about the idea of art as service. According to Viscount Esher, “Lethaby once set out in epigrammatic form a simple syllabus of his accumulated experience. ‘Life is best thought of as service; service is common productive work; labour may be turned into joy by thinking of it as art, art, thought of as fine and sound ordinary work, is the widest and best form of culture; culture is a tempered human spirit’.” 
An early image of the church at Brockhampton.
North Elevation, showing “knotwork” windows.
Also in 1901…
During what became an increasingly busy year for Lethaby, in 1901 he also became Professor of Design at the Royal College of Art, and the following year the sole Principal at the London County Council Central School of Arts and Crafts. Initially founded by Lethaby in 1896, ‘The Central’ was a logical consequence of the Art Workers Guild he had co-founded in 1884 with other young architects associated with R.N. Shaw’s office. But it was in Germany, through the later Deutscher Werkbund movement and Walter Gropius’ Bauhaus, that Lethaby’s unique contribution to 20th century finally found its fullest expression. As Lethaby said, “German advances have been founded on the English Arts and Crafts.” 
Lethaby also shaped our contemporary understanding of the importance of conservation and preservation. In 1906, he was appointed Surveyor of Westminster Abbey, and his work for the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings (founded by William Morris and others in 1877) is still recognised today through its awarding of the annual Lethaby Scholarships for architectural conservation.
In 1901, Lethaby also began to commission and edit the popular ‘The Artistic Crafts Series of Technical Handbooks’. These important texts, written by leading practitioners of the time, covered a diverse range of subjects, and included: ‘Book-Binding and the Care of Books’ (Douglas Cockerell), ‘Silverwork and Jewellery’ (H. Wilson), ‘Woodcarving: Design and Workmanship’ (George Jack), ‘Stained Glass Work’ (Christopher Whall, who did the windows at All Saints), ‘Embroidery and Tapestry Weaving’ (Mrs. Archibald H. Christie), ‘Heraldry for Craftsmen and Designers’ (W.H. St. John), ‘Woodblock Printing’ (F.Morely Fletcher), ‘Dress Design’ (Lethaby, himself), and so on.
In his Editor’s Preface to Edward Johnston’s ‘Writing, Illuminating & Lettering’ (1906), Lethaby states that “…true design is an inseparable element of good quality, involving as it does the selection of good and suitable material, contrivance for special purpose, expert workmanship, proper finish, and so on.”
One of Lethaby’s stated intentions behind the ‘Artistic Crafts Series’ was to “put artistic craftsmanship before people as furnishing reasonable occupations for those who would gain a livelihood.” Indeed, when he published his own ‘Architecture – an Introduction to the History and Theory of the Art of Building’ in 1911, Lethaby was ‘reproached for having given away the secrets of architecture for a shilling.”
Of course, such things as ‘true design’ and the benefits of ‘well-making’ can be simply dismissed today as irrelevant to our current building of a very different kind of world. Even so, and despite our sense of urgency and the limited resources now at our disposal, when visiting Lethaby’s church at Brockhampton we might do well to recall this old architect’s advice to others:
“In church, cathedral, cloister, hall
Some hours each day I’d spend-
And this a touch of dignity
To all your work will lend.”
They say that imitation is the sincerest form of flattery, but it is difficult to imagine what Lethaby would have made of what Norman from New Zealand found on the 22nd floor of the Hotel Monterey Grasmere, in Osaka, Japan. “The faux chapel in the lobby” is a scaled down replica of Lethaby’s church at Brockhampton, and has become a popular wedding venue. What would have alarmed Lethaby most? The hotel’s description of what Norman discovered, or the risk-analysis of building foundations in Osaka Prefecture?
“This authentic looking chapel is surrounded by green grass and vivid flowers and illuminated from above by the extensive glass roof. The design imitates the churches of the Cotswolds, described by the renowned designer William Morris as the most beautiful in England. Our chapel recreated the beauty of the Cotswolds, from its rolling green hills to its traditional arts and crafts culture.” 
- Viscount Esher: ‘A Broken Wave: the rebuilding of England 1940-1980, 1981.
- http://www.allsaintsbrockhampton.org/history/, accessed 28.05.2019.
- W.R. Lethaby: ‘The Town Itself / A Garden City is a Town’, 1921.
- Viscount Esher: Forward to ‘SCRIP’S AND SCRAPS by W.R. Lethaby gathered and introduced by Alfred H. Powell’, 1956.
- W.R. Lethaby: ‘Form in Civilization’, 1922.
- https://www.hotelmonterey.co.jp/en/grasmere_osaka/facilities/ accessed 13.08.2019.
David Patten | Biography
After studying Fine Art in Birmingham, and Painting under Peter de Francia at the Royal College of Art in London, David Patten’s work has emphasised the importance of cultural democracy and collaboration. He has contributed to many award winning projects, including the re-use scheme at Electric Wharf in Coventry (Bryant Priest Newman Architects) and the restoration of Stourport Canal Basins (British Waterways). His current work on W.R.Lethaby’s impact on post-War rebuilding is a direct result of his almost obsessive interest in the ‘Monumental Studio’ of the little known sculptor and ecclesiastical decorator William Forsyth, who was working in Worcester during the latter half of the 19th century. David Patten is also a Patron of The Baskerville Society..
In the latest in our occasional series of posts about cloth the focus is on linen. Starting with the basics; linen is a fibre which is obtained by processing the ‘Linum’ or ‘Flax’ plant. ‘Flax’ has a pretty blue flower and is grown for both the fibre and the seed all over the cooler regions of the world, with high quality linen being particularly associated with Ireland, Belgium, Latvia and Lithuania.
Linen has a number of properties which make it really good to use in the home; it is cool to touch and can absorb up to 20% moisture before it feels damp, it is lint-free, does not pill and is durable to abrasion although because it has low elasticity repeated ironing of folds will eventually cause the fibres to break (the cuffs of linen shirts bear witness to this) . It is not of interest to moth or carpet beetle and is easy to take care of washing well even at high temperatures and has only moderate initial shrinkage. It can be finished to maximise or reduce these properties and can be woven as a ‘union’ with other yarns to produce cloth with particular characteristics. Linen has been used by humans as a textile for at least 30,000 years and with such a long history and with it’s particular properties the uses that linen are put to are extensive; bed linen, tablecloths, napkins, dish towels, glass towels and bath towels, home and commercial furnishing items (wallpaper/wall coverings, upholstery, window treatments, sheer curtains etc.), apparel items like dresses, shirts and suits, luggage, artists canvases, it is used by bookbinders and bakers and for paper and banknotes. The Tinsmiths selection of ‘Linen Fabric’ has grown steadily over the years and we now offer linen in qualities from very fine sheers to the chunkiest 712gsm upholstery linen.
As curtain makers we have always been slightly dissatisfied by the drape achieved by some of the stiffer linens and we now offer ‘Washed Linen’ in a really good range of colours and stripes – curtains made with this ‘Washed Linen’ drape fantastically, falling heavily to the hem.
Linen has always been the luxury choice for bedlinen in hot climates because it keeps cool and dry even in the most humid conditions, however we have always felt that natural unbleached linen for curtains and furnishings is an excellent option for bedrooms where a calm and relaxed environment is required.
Of course Linen is a good upholstery cloth, the heavier weights are required for durability and for ‘severe domestic use’ some linen unions stand up to wear outstandingly, achieving very high rub tests; many of our upholstery fabrics have a high linen content and achieve very good results when tested for durability. For loose covers the stability of linen comes into it’s own, because it generally washes with a minimal initial shrinkage and takes washing and cleaning processes well, it is the ideal choice for loose covers.
The Bottle Kiln at Winchcombe, last fired in 1954, awaiting restoration.
There has been a working pottery on the site at Winchcombe, Gloucestershire since the late 1700’s – barring closure during the 1st & 2nd World Wars. Emblematic of country potteries of the 18th & 19th century were bottle kilns; massive wood-fired or coal-fired kilns filled with everyday wares by a team of “repeat throwers” and taking two-three days to reach temperature.
An example of Slipware Pottery, typical of the Greet Pottery Period
The Bottle Kiln at Winchcombe is in a sorry state – it stands sprouting vegetation and without the surrounding pottery sheds. Some would say it is madness to attempt resusitation but the kiln is part of a fantastic story that tracks change in the ceramic industry through this period to present day.
Winchcombe has clay – lots of it – which is why the pottery started here. The first recorded pottery on the site, Greet Pottery, made chimney pots, plant pots, rhubarb forcers, tableware for local people. Michael Cardew – student of Bernard Leach – spotted the possibility of setting up his first workshop here after its closure was forced by the outbreak of the First World War . His era at Winchcombe began in 1926 and marked the shift from rustic traditions to studio pottery. Cardew recruited two locals; importantly, Elijah Comfort, aged 63 and who had worked before in the pottery and a little later the 13 yr old Sidney Tustin. Cardew wanted to follow the old traditions of English Slip-decorated Earthenware and was successful in this, continued filling the enormous bottle kiln and expanding his workforce.
Bottle and Casserole by Michael Cardew
The Second World War brought change; Cardew moved to Bodmin leaving the young chemist, Ray Finch to carry on the pottery, which was, again, forced to close during Second World War. Finch returned, bought the pottery and welcoming student potters – many of whom have become well-known in their own right – but the pottery struggled and the bottle kiln was fired for the last time (to date!) in 1954.
Large Stoneware Plate by Ray Finch
Ray Finch, influenced by the stoneware pottery of Shoji Hamada, began to equipping the pottery with kilns to fire stoneware alongside earthenware and this gradually became the mainstay of the pottery which flourished during the 1960’s and benefitted from a craft pottery revival with the interest in a “wholemeal” life. Ray’s sons, Mike and Joe, followed their father into the crafts – Mike with this own pottery in Wales and Joe continuing at Winchcombe until his retirement in 2016.
Winchcombe Pottery is right now entering a new phase. Matt Grimmitt (a descendent of Elijah Comfort) took over the “wheels” from Mike Finch and, working together with John Forster and Joseph Fuller, there is a real sense of new life being brought to the historic pottery at a time when there is, as there was in the 1960-70’s, renewed interest in the crafts across the board and in pottery, especially. Winchcombe continues to make stoneware but has just produced the first slip-decorated earthenware pitchers and, who knows, could this be a return to Winchcombe roots in earthenware? Possibly even in a bottle kiln? If you would like to help Matt and his team restore the bottle kiln, you can donate to their restoration project here.
Stoneware Tableware from Winchcombe, 2019
Having just received our first delivery of Winchcombe Tableware at Tinsmiths, we are delighted in the shapes, surfaces and feel of the ware which is robust, versatile, serene and undemanding on the eye – a real pleasure to use daily. We wish the new team at the pottery all the very best – we’ll be watching for how this incarnation of Winchcombe Pottery develops and visiting regularly.
At the Eastern fringes of the Brecon Beacons National Park, on the edge of the Black Mountains, where wild untrammelled landscapes becomes fields and winding lanes, the tiny hillside church of Patrishow or Patricio looks out over panoramic views.
About five miles from Crickhowell on the southern slopes of the Gader Range, this is an isolated place and not easy to find as you wind upwards along hedgerow thickened lanes.
Before you reach the church you will pass a spring where Issui, a sixth century Celtic saint, murdered by a traveller who had refused conversion, had his cell. The site became a place of pilgrimage and there is still a pagan feel as coloured ribbons hang from trees and offerings and coins have been left on the stone steps that lead down to the spring.
Further up the hill, the stone church named for St Issui was built in the eleventh century and then extended in the fourteenth century. It was further restored in the early nineteen hundreds.
The church is a simple Gothic with a stone gable and bellcote but it contains treasures. Within are four groups of wall paintings, of which the skeleton, known as the Figure of Doom, is the most spectacular. He is holding a scythe and an hourglass and has a spade hanging over his arm. He would have been a visual reminder to an illiterate congregation that they must use their limited time on earth wisely. Legend has it this figure has been whitewashed over many times but keeps reappearing.
Stretching across the interior, below the whitewashed vaulted ceiling, is one of the finest pieces of medieval art in Wales: an intricately carved Rood screen, carved in Irish bog oak, from the late fifteenth century.
The font is one of the oldest in Wales and dates from the tenth century whilst within the churchyard stands a rare medieval churchyard cross .
When we arrived on a Sunday morning in September, we found no one about. As we were leaving, we met a charming be-suited older man carrying a battered electrical heater under his arm. He told us he was preparing for the upcoming morning service, ‘and’ he added, ‘you can certainly let your dog out of the car, he’s welcome here”. When we commented on how we found church so beguiling and its setting, with the views stretching away below, incredibly beautiful, he told us many who visit the church will mention its particular atmosphere of quiet serenity.
The churchyard is crossed by a footpath that leads walkers right to St Issui’s main entrance. Whether you are modern day pilgrim or a traveller to this part of Wales, take a detour to seek out Patrishow’s gem of a parish church. And, it is good to know that even in its remoteness, it continues to be a living place of worship.
Here on the cropped grass of the narrow ridge I stand,
A fathom of earth, alive in air,
Aloof as an admiral on the old rocks
England below me
WH Auden 1936
Spread along the horizon to the north-east of Ledbury, stretches the bumpy spine of the Malvern Hills: a designated area of outstanding natural beauty, enhanced by iron age hill forts and ancient pathways.
At over six hundred million years of age the geology of this formation is one of the oldest in the country. The Malverns has stood as a natural barrier between olden realms, while today they divide Herefordshire and Worcestershire and have Gloucestershire meet them to the South.
Walk up to its ridge and beacons, and the spectacular views roll away—the Black Mountains of Wales in the West, less populated and wilder than the Severn Valley and the Cotswolds to the East. On a clear day you can see thirteen counties and the cathedrals of Worcester, Gloucester and Hereford.
Strung along a thirteen kilometres length, twenty-two hills make up the Malverns. Some of their names; Raggedstone, Midsummer, Hangman’s Hill, Swinyard and Perseverance, evoke an England of long ago. You are walking in the footsteps of the past. It is now believed that the Shire Ditch running north-south along the ridge is a prehistoric pathway from Midsummer Hill fort to the Worcester Beacon.
It is the walk up to the Herefordshire Beacon—otherwise known as British Camp—to which I regularly return. Protected as a ‘Scheduled Ancient Monument’, the Beacon is an Iron Age fort whose top ramparts are the relic of a Norman motte fortification. Its fallen meringue of earthworks winding around the hill, date from the second century BC. Folklore has it this is where Caractacus, the Ancient British chieftain, had his last stand against the Romans. This may be apocryphal but, certainly when you are here, you want to believe it.
I come here in all seasons and in all weathers and it is always a joy. My favourite time is the early part of the morning when the light is soft and thin mist often rolls up and over the hills like steam. As you walk the ridge from the Beacon summit and head south to the distant Monument, the weather clears and,on either side of you, the patchworks of fields sweep away to the far horizons.
The Malverns have influenced too many artists to name-check, but famously this is where William Langland’s fourteenth century epic poem “Piers Plowman” is set. The views here inspired the famous shires of JRR Tolkein and perhaps the Narnia of his great friend and fellow Malvern Hills walker CS Lewis. Elgar roamed these hills and is buried nearby and WH Auden taught English at the nearby Down’s School.
When you walk the Malvern Hills, you still look out on a timeless England, mostly untouched by modernity. In the seventeenth century, diarist John Evelyn described the view from British Camp as ‘One of the godliest vistas in England’. It still is.
If you are making a visit to Ledbury, it is hard to miss its parish church. Its spire can be seen from many miles around but disappears when you find yourself on the town’s High Street.
Follow the picturesque cobbled lane that leads away from the distinctive black and white timbered Market House and you will arrive at the gates of St Michael and All Angels set back within a walled churchyard filled with crumbling tombstones.
The building itself is perhaps larger than you would expect for a town of Ledbury’s size. Nikolas Pevsner called it the premier parish church of Herefordshire and, in his England’s Thousand Best Churches, Simon Jenkins gives it four stars, calling it ‘a church of all periods’ .
It is believed that the church might have been built on an ancient site of pagan worship, whilst the present building has been added to over the centuries; the beautifully carved Norman West door, dating from a time when the church was narrower and darker, faces you as you enter the churchyard.
Norman West Door
The square bell tower, with its nine foot thick lower walls, was built originally as a stronghold against the Welsh invaders – hence its separateness from the main church – with a steeple added five hundred years later. Within are housed eight bells, the earliest dating from 1690, whose chimes can be heard all over town all through the day and night. If you are lucky enough to get permission to climb the bell tower you will have an incredible bird’s eye view of Ledbury town.
Once within the church, the pronounced sense of overlaying centuries is even more obvious. In the oldest part – the Chancel – there are round headed arches and ‘porthole’ windows of an earlier structure. Like a church within a church, these portholes now look out to the north and south aisles. On the north side is an unusual extension, the Chapter house, also called St Katherine’s chapel, built in the 14th century.
When you look upwards to the 15th century carved roof you will notice the main columns, built on the original Norman bases, lean very slightly outwards towards the two adjoining aisles.
Ledger Stone Detail
As you walk around the interior you tread over Ledbury’s history. There are over 150 floor memorials or ‘ledger stones’ commemorating nearly four hundred past residents of the town. Some are now indecipherable but many tell of prominent local citizens of the past.
All about the walls are effigies and monuments. There are misericords carved in the choir stalls, a beautiful seventeenth century font, unusual pillar carvings of mythical beasts, brass effigies and the many designs of the embroidered tapestry kneelers.
There are twenty four stained glass windows that span the centuries, including ten windows by the celebrated Victorian Charles Eamer Kempe. I was advised by one of the volunteer guides – on hand most days to share a wealth of historical information and enthusiasm – that the south aisle stained glass window would have been more appropriate as the main window behind the altar.
I was also told of a fascinating – but hard to spot – detail of a small red window that can be seen when looking up from the Nave. History tells that it was inserted during the Reformation when the red sanctuary light of the Catholic faith was forbidden.
The oak pulpit was carved in 1833 by the church’s rector Reverend John Jackson. The story goes that he infamously had to resign in disgrace after his maidservant carried her baby up this aisle to where he was preaching to the congregation, demanding he acknowledge his bastard child.
My favourite memorial is the 17th century Skynner family tomb to the right of the Chancel . All the figures, except the baby, are wearing Tudor ruffs. The husband faces his wife in her splendid hat, their tiny deceased baby between them, whilst at the base of the memorial their ten children kneel at prayer. One of the daughters holds a skull to indicate that she too died before her parents.
Skynner Family Tomb
In June this year the church confirmed an extraordinary finding. It would seem that one of its two Last Supper paintings, recently restored by Artist and Conservator Ronald Moore, has been identified as an original large scale Renaissance Altar Piece, perhaps even influenced by Veronese. “It’s probably mid-16th century from an Italian Renaissance painter who was aware of Leonardo’s Last Supper in Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan….I think this is the lost Last Supper of Polidoro and friends “ Ledbury Reporter August 2018
The Last Supper showing details (below) from the whole (above) which stretches over 13 ft across.
If you do come to Ledbury, take the time to visit here. I might have noted a selection of some of St Michael and All Angels’ beguiling aspects, but there is a great deal more to Ledbury’s Parish Church.